Sie ist eines der am meisten gefährdeten Tiertaxa der pannonischen Tiefebene. [3] However, McDiarmid et al. 2. The distribution map is currently disabled. v. 1894. (2003) recognize five and list V. eriwanensis and V. renardi as valid species. Vipera ursinii este cea mai mică specie de viperă din Europa, 40-60 cm lungime, cu capul triunghiular terminat cu un bot sub-ascuțit. Mein Einstieg in die Haltung von Giftschlangen. Herpetofauna 9 (47): 25-34 -, Sigg, Harry 1990. Conservation status is assessed at biogeographical level. Preliminary data regarding the distribution and status of the herpetofauna in Iaşi County (Romania). The snakes of Europe. Engelmann, W.E. Zool. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp. Ecological situation and morphological characteristics of Vipera ursinii moldavica in the "Valea Lui David" Nature Reserve. [type catalogue] Herpetozoa 12 (3-4): 147-156 -, Tomović, Ljiljana; Carretero, Miguel Angel; Ajtíc, Rastko; Crnobrnja-Isailovíc, Jelka 2008. Unser Ziel ist der Schutz und Erhalt der Ungarischen Wiesenotter. & Touré,T.A. TRUDY ZOOLOGICHESKOGO INSTITUTA AKADEMII NAUK SSSR 157: 55-61 -, Veith, G. 1991. Amphibia-Reptilia 25 (3): 316-320 -, Török, Zsolt 2007. Ophidia 3 (1): 31-32 -, Krecsák, László and Stefan Zamfirescu 2001. 8 (3) -, Joger, U.; Fritz, U.; Guicking, D.; Kalyabina-Hauf, S.; Nagy, Z.T. GRILLITSCH, H. 2010. 17: 57-61, 65-71 -, Mizsei, Edvárd; Bálint Üveges, Balázs Vági, Márton Szabolcs, Szabolcs Lengyel, Walter P. Pfliegler, Zoltán T. Nagy and János P. Tóth 2016. This species is considered to be a Vulnerable species on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, due to habitat destruction caused by changes in agricultural practices and climate change in mountain areas, and to collection for the pet trade. Ferchaud, Anne-Laure; Sylvain Ursenbacher, Marc Cheylan, Luca Luiselli, DuÄan JeliÅ, BÇlint Halpern, Égnes Major, Tatiana Kotenko, Najme Keyan, Roozbeh Behrooz, Jelka Crnobrnja-IsailoviÅ, Ljiljana TomoviÅ, Ioan Ghira, Yannis Ioannidis, VÑroniq 2012. Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. 2001. Vipera ursinnii rakosiensis. [1], In addition, this species is listed on CITES Appendix I, which means that it is threatened with extinction if trade is not halted,[14] and is a strictly protected species (Appendix II) under the Berne Convention. Belser Verlag, Stuttgart 212 pp. Die Ungarische Wiesenotter – schon lange geschützt, dennoch stark bedroht. Persecution Über eine partiellmelanistische Vipera ursinii macrops (Méhely, 1911). (1993) recognize the first four,[2] while Mallow et al. 10. Vom 09. Furthermore, the smooth snake probably predates upon the Moldavian meadow viper. SE France, E Austria, Italy, Croatia, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Monte Negro, Macedonia, Serbia, N Albania, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Greece, Moldova. Herpetologica Bonnensis II: 181-182 -, Strugariu, A., Zamfirescu, A.R., Nicoară, A., Gherghel, I., Sas, I., Puşcaşu, C.M. Thousands of new, high-quality pictures added every day. Not in Kazakhstan fide Dujsebayeva (2010 and pers. Lowland populations are threatened by habitat alteration, fragmentation and alteration; majority of the habitats are already gone, populations in Austria and Bulgaria are extinct, only a few populations remained in Hungary and Romania (Krecsák et al. Mus. Gruber, U. Scien. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 68 (4): 627-725 -, Krecsák, László & Tamás Tóth 2009. Reptilia (Münster) 14 (76): 14-25 -, Schweiger, M. 2012. Amphibia-Reptilia 29 (1): 61-70 -, Tomovíc, Ljiljana; Jelka Crnobrnja-Isailovíc & Rastko Ajtíc 2004. Eine neue Art des Vipera berus-Komplexes aus der Turkei. Zur Situation der Wiesenotter, Vipera ursinii rakosiensis (MEHELY, 1894), und der Pannonischen Bergeidechse, Lacerta vivipara pannonica LAC & KLUCH, 1968, im Burgenland (Österreich). Phylogeography of western Palaearctic reptiles – Spatial and temporal speciation patterns. 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2009.RLTS.T22997A9406628.en, "Distribution of the genus Vipera in the western and Central Balkans (Squamata, Serpentes, Viperidae)", United Nations Environment Programme / World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats, Appendix II, "HUMAN IMPACT ON HABITATS OF THE MEADOW VIPER (VIPERA URSINII) IN EASTERN ROMANIA", Checklist of Armenia's Amphibians and Reptiles, Tadevosyan's Herpetological Resources,, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 26 December 2020, at 17:30. 2020. Agriculture Méhely,L. Die Ungarische Wiesenotter zählt zu den kleinsten, am wenigsten giftigen und seltensten Giftschlangen der Welt. A revised dichotomous key to the snakes of Italy (Reptilia, Squamata, Serpentes), according to recent systematic updates. Terraria-Elaphe 2015 (5): 14-20 -. Boulenger, G. A. Schutzstatus: Wiesenottern (Vipera ursinii) sind durch ihr enges, regionales Vorkommen in ihrem Bestand stark gefährdet, weswegen sie den höchsten Schutzstatus haben (WA I) Anz. Amphibia-Reptilia 33 (3-4): 393-400 -, Vancea, St.; Saint Girons, Hubert; Fuhn, I. E.; Stugren, B. Acta Zool. 1993. [critical review in Sauria 33 (3): 19 and HR 43: 503], Reading, C. J.; L. M. Luiselli, G. C. Akani, X. Bonnet, G. Amori, J. M. Ballouard, E. Filippi, G. Naulleau, D. Pearson, L. Rugiero 2010. Sauria 39 (1): 3-16 -, Schweiger, M. 2009. (1999), and thus ITIS, feel that more definitive data is necessary before any subspecies can be recognized.[2]. VIPERA URSINII MOLDAVICA ŞI HABITATE SALE DIN MOLDOVA (ROMÂNIA) - 3 - 1. Amphibia-Reptilia 37 (1): 55 - 68 -, MIZSEI, EDVÁRD; DANIEL JABLONSKI, STEPHANOS A. ROUSSOS, MARIA DIMAKI, YANNIS IOANNIDIS, GÖRAN NILSON & ZOLTÁN T. NAGY, 2017. Mowing 6. W. Kammel – On the situation of potential habitats of Vipera ursinii rakosiensis in Austria 76 T. Kotenko – Situation with Vipera renardi in Ukraine 77. 4. Zoologica Scripta 19 (2): 227-231 -, Billing, H. 1985. [3] Females are larger than males. A new map solution will soon become available. Die Reptilien Bosniens und der Herzegowina. It was scientifically recorded for the first time in 1893 by Lajos Méhelÿ, Hungarian zoologist. The smallest viper in Europe, its body is thick, its head narrow, and its appearance rough. Edizioni Belvedere, Latina (Italy), 543 pp. Nilson, G., Andren, C., & Flärdh, B. Lett. Grazing Threat and conservation status. & I.Baran 1970. Ges. It is gray, tan, or yellowish with a dark undulating dorsal stripe, which is edged with black.[9]. Die Ungarische Wiesenotter ( Vipera ursinii rakosiensis) ist eine in Teilen Ungarns und Rumäniens endemische Unterart der Wiesenotter ( Vipera ursinii ). Eine Übersicht der Arten und Bemerkungen zu einzelnen Taxa. Mus. Acta Herpetologica 3 (2): 167-173, Kramer, E. 1961. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Although sometimes confused with V. aspis or V. berus, it differs from them in the following characters. Verh. Russ. Naturhist. 1993. BROADLEY, J. R. DIXON, C., MCCARTHY, J. C. RAGE, B. SCHÀTTI & M.TORIBA 1993. [11] Although the following subspecies are currently invalid according to the taxonomy used here, their common names may still be encountered: Southeastern France, eastern Austria (extinct), Hungary, central Italy, Serbia, Montenegro, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina[12], northern and northeastern Republic of Kosovo, North Macedonia, Albania, Romania, northern Bulgaria, Greece, Turkey, northwestern Iran, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russia and across Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and eastern Uzbekistan steppes to China (Xinjiang). 47: 87-267. Die Schlangenfauna Europas. Vertebrata Hungarica 23: 21-27, Eiselt,J. Ophidia 6 (2): 2-18 -, Shine, Richard;Madsen, Thomas 1994. The Book of Snakes. Vipera berus Venomous snake that is extremely widespread and can be found throughout most of Western Europe and as far as East Asia. van 1987. It is medically less important than other Vipera species, because of its remote habitat and the very small amount of venom that it injects by its relatively short fangs. Differenciation morphologique de quatre popuations francaises de Vipera ursinii ursinii Bonaparte, 1835 (Reptilia, Viperidae). Zootaxa 4227 (1): 075–088 -, Naulleau, G. 1987. A parlagi vipera (Vipera ursinii) a pikkelyes hüllők (Squamata) rendjébe, a kígyók (Serpentes) alrendjébe és a viperafélék (Viperidae) családjába tartozó faj. Gvoždík, Václav; David Jandzik, Bogdan Cordos, Ivan Rehák, Petr Kotlík 2011. Europaische Amphibien und Reptilien. Acad. Nuclear markers support the mitochondrial phylogeny of Vipera ursinii–renardi complex (Squamata: Viperidae) and species status for the Greek meadow viper. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, -, Phelps, T. 2010. Systematisch-phylogenetische Studien an Viperiden. Eine neue Mutation der Kreuzotter aus der Mark Brandenburg. Assessment of conservation status at the Member State level The map shows both Conservation Status and distribution using a 10 km x 10 km grid. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [4, 5] Coloritul este relativ similar cu restul viperelor europene.Banda în zig-zag se compune dintr-o serie de pete brun închise, tivite cu negru. Boulenger, G.A. 7. Leisure Activities Vipera ursinii moldavica Nilson, Andrén & Joger 1993 Vipera ursinii rakosiensis Méhely, 1893 Vipera ursinii (except Vipera ursinii rakosiensis) ... status assesses every six years and for each biogeographical region the condition of habitats and species compared to the favourable status as described in the Habitats Directive. Eine Checkliste von Sicherheitsvorkehrungen bei der Haltung von Giftschlangen. Can you confirm these amateur observations of Vipera ursinii? 17 (4): 185-188. Report under the Article 17 of the Habitats Directive Page 2. Severe malformation in neonate Vipera ursinii rakosiensis. [CDATA[ */ javascript:prn(); /* ]]> */ Biogeographia, 21-2000: 441-554. Afforestation The Amphibians and Reptiles in Bulgaria. Nachforschungen über Vipera ursinii anatolica EISELT & BARAN 1970 im westlichen Taurus. 1. ZooKeys 341 (2013): 49-76 -, CRNOBRNJA-ISAILOVIC, J. 2007. It is found in France, Italy, and Greece. Iconographia della Fauna Italica per le quattro classi degli animali vertebrati. Baron, Jean-Pierre; Ferriere, Regis; Saint Girons, Hubert 1993. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Volume 35 (1): 35-47 -, GEBHART, J. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale "G. Doria", Genova, XCVIII: 259-364, Wagner, Norman; Valentin Mingo, Ulrich Schulte, Stefan Lötters 2015. 1. Die Schlangen Europas, 2. - 14. These high montane habitats are separated by deep valleys and are threatened by overgrazing, soil erosion, and a potential increase in the elevation of the tree line due to climate change. Kwet, Axel & Benny Trapp 2014. Die Vipern Europas. The Reptiles of Anatolia: a Checklist and Zoogeographical analysis. Discrepancy in mitochondrial and nuclear polymorphism in meadow vipers (Vipera ursinii) questions the unambiguous use of mtDNA in conservation studies. Vipera ursinii moldavica is a species of community interest whose conservation requires the designation of special areas of conservation. The meadow and steppe vipers of Europe and Asia — the Vipera (Acridophaga) ursinii complex. 1988. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 300 pp. Vipera ursinii rakosienis, or meadow viper, is probably one of the rarest snakes’ subspecies in the world, and certainly one of the most endangered (to extinction) subspecies in Europe. Hungariae, Budapest 9: 186-243 -, Méhely,L. 2010. IUCN Red List status of threatened species. Go to: main text of page | main navigation | local menu, You are here » Reptilia (Münster) 15 (81): 3,6 -, Luef, Hans-Jürgen 2014. [review in HR 35: 200, Reptilia 35: 74]. Figure 2: Current distribution of the three morphological groups of Vipera ursinii taxonomic complex (from Nilson et Andren, 2001). Herpetozoa 5 -, Kammel, Werner 1992. North-Western Journal of Zoology 4 (Suppl.1): S1-S23 -. 2009. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 85-100; doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2014.12.005 -. & Grillitsch,H. 2006. Ihr Status wird von der IUCN als „stark gefährdet“ ( endangered) angegeben. Und tatsächlich fanden wir dort neben zahlreichen Zauneidechsen (Lacerta agilis bosnica) nach einigen Stunden auch eine männliche sehr kontrastreich gefärbte Vipera ursinii macrops. 2009. Anz. The snout is not upturned. A natural history of the Azemiopinae and Viperinae von Tony PHELPS – Anmerkungen, Ergänzungen, Korrekturen. favours high-mountain dry grasslands in southern and south-eastern Croatia. Vipera ursinii rakosiensis subadult or adult 1,0 Vipera renardi (Donau delta) or swap my adult female for juv. 1999. 16: 186-192 -, Méhely,L. GIS technique used for managing data on potential Natura 2000 sites. Systematische Beobachtungen an Vipera (Pelias) berus L. II. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Ergänzungen zu den Katalogen der Typusexemplare der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien. Illegal collection Terraria-Elaphe 2014 (3): 22-29 -, Mallow, D. Ludwig, D. & Nilson, G. 2003. Draco 15 (60): 72-79 -, Kwet, Axel & Benny Trapp 2014. Molecular phylogeny and systematics of viperine snakes II. 8. Systématique et répartition de Vipera ursinii (Bonaparte, 1835) (Reptilia, Viperidae), en Roumanie. Altai, south to Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan, China (W Xinjiang). Part 2 -Snakes (Reptilia, Serpentes). Ergebnisse zoologischer Sammelreisen in der Türkei: Viperidae. Kosmos-Verlag, Stuttgart, 252 pp. Krieger, Malabar, Florida, 410 pp. In the meantime, please consult other species distribution map providers listed in the Other resources panel below. [15], Vipera ursinii is the most threatened snake in Europe. Schlangen, die Wirbellose fressen. Herr Dr. Franz Werner besprach und demonstrirte einige herpetologische Objecte. Jetzt auch noch giftiges Geschleich! Sexual dichromatism in snakes of the genus Vipera: A review and a new evolutionary hypothesis. Sauria 33 (3): 19-42 -, Kunz, Kriton 2015. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Littering, There is high genetic diversity within samples of Vipera ursinii and several species may be involved. Image of habitat, predator, rakosiensis - 70645996 Vipera Ursinii Bonap., eine verkannte Giftschlange Europas. Herpetozoa 14 -, Dely, Oliver G. & Stohl, G. 1989. A new subspecies of the subalpine meadow viper, Vipera ursinii (Bonaparte) (Reptilia, Viperidae), from Greece. Snake species of the world. Roads Reptilia (Münster) 16 (90): 38-46 -, Trapp, Benny 2014. A re-evaluation of the taxonomic status of the Moldavian steppe viper based on immunological investigations, with a discussion of the hypothesis of secondary intergradation between Vipera ursinii rakosiensis and Vipera (ursinii) renardi. Keywords: snakes, habitat alteration, steppe, Danube Delta. 2002. Lurche und Kriechtiere Europas. Rezumat. 1893. Reptilien und Amphibien des griechischen Festlandes. 11. Herpetological Bulletin (79): 7-13 -, Lantermann, W. & Lantermann, Y. Reptilia (Münster) 20 (116): 44-51 -, Halpern, B. 1913. Die Kreuzotter (Vipera berus L.) in Ungarn. & Péchy, T. 2010. Danube Delta Institute (Tulcea, Romania) 13: 241-250, Tóth, Tamás; Gál, János; Újvári, Beáta; Madsen, Thomas 2005. Vipera ursinii is a venomous viper and a very rare species, that is in danger of extinction. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp. Südostfrankreich 09. The Hungarian meadow viper, also called the Danubian meadow viper is one of the eight subspecies of the Vipera ursinii. Photo about Female meadow viper in natural habitat ( Vipera ursinii rakosiensis ). Die Wiesenotter (Vipera ursinii) ist eine eurasische Giftschlange, andere Namen für diese Schlangenart sind Spitzkopfotter und Karstotter. Francaise d'Aquariologie, Herpet. -, Korsós, Zoltán; Zoltán Barina, Dániel Pifkó 2008. On taxonomy of three viper species of the Vipera kaznakowi complex [in Russian]. OLD WORLD VIPERS. L’interprétation des noms grecs et latins d’animaux illustrée par le cas du zoonyme seps-seps. August 2008 . Diversity and distribution of reptiles in Romania. Aspisviper (Vipera aspis aspis) Ein Pärchen der Westlichen Smaragdeidechse (Lacerta bilineata). Herpetologica Romanica 1: 77-78. [CDATA[ */ javascript:fav(); /* ]]> */, IUCN Red List - Vipera ursinii - Vulnerable, VU, National Center for Biotechnology Information,,,,, map:, map:,,, Viperidae, Viperinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes), Pelias Ursinii BONAPARTE 1835 (under Pelias chersea). Methusen & Co. Ltd, London, 151 pp. Amphibia-Reptilia 26 (3): 388-390 -, Trapp, B. Neumann Verlag (Radebeul, Germany), 440 pp. At least six subspecies may be encountered in modern literature:[2], Golay et al. Mitochondrial phylogeny shows multiple independent ecological transitions and northern dispersion despite of Pleistocene glaciations in meadow and steppe vipers (Vipera ursinii and Vipera renardi). 2010 6 777-780; DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2010.0373 -, Reuss, T. 1924. Journal of Biogeography 39: 1836–1847 -, Garrigues, Thomas; Catherine Dauga; Elisabeth Ferquel; Valérie Choumet and Anna-Bella Failloux 2005. Speed-Dating mit den drei Vipernarten Montenegros – Ein Erlebnisbericht. Another population of Vipera ursinii macrops MÉHELY, 1911 in Montenegro (Central Balkans). & Wink, M. 2007. 8 (1): 69-73 -, KUCHARZEWSKI, C 2011. 3. Molecular phylogeny of Vipera Laurenti, 1768 and the related genera Macrovipera (Reuss, 1927) and Daboia (Gray, 1842), with comments about neurotoxic Vipera aspis aspis populations. ; Tabachishin, Vasily G.; Zavialov, Evgeni V. 2002. Impactul antropic asupra habitatelor speciei Vipera ursinii din estul României. Eine herbstliche Stippvisite in Montenegro. Case study: areas inhabited by Vipera ursinii. 1893. Constructions There are always several large scales or plates on the top of the head. Herpetozoa 4 (1-2): 1-96 -, Venchi, Alberto and Roberto Sindaco 2006. Die Vipern der Türkei. Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology
2002(1):76-81. BODSON, Liliane 2009. Vol. von Gast » Sa Aug 24, 2002 18:14 . [type catalogue] Aire-Genève, Azemiops S. A. Herpetological Data Center: i-xv + 1-478. Breeding results: Vipera ursinii renardi. Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael (2011). Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA -. Ann. Die Schlangenfauna der kroatischen Insel Krk. Variation, Sexualdimorphismus, Wachstum und Taxonomie von Vipera ursinii (Bonaparte, 1835) und Vipera kaznakovi Nikolskij, 1909. Katalog der Typen der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien – 2018. Herpetozoa 5 (1/2): 3-11 -, Knoepffler, P.& E. Sochurek 1955. Terraria-Elaphe 2014 (3): 14-21 -. Known by a host of common names including common adder and common viper, adders have been the subject of much folklore in … Herpetozoa 23 (1/2): 25-50 -. Climatic changes threaten the populations of the Meadow Viper (Vipera ursinii ursinii) on the Montagne de Lure. 2007. Sc. Ein Zuchtzentrum für die Wiesenottern Ungarns. Find Orsini Viper Natural Habitat Vipera Ursinii stock images in HD and millions of other royalty-free stock photos, illustrations and vectors in the Shutterstock collection. A mitochondrial DNA phylogeny of the endangered vipers of the Vipera ursinii complex. Litteratura Serpentium 10 (4): 190-191 -, Sindaco, R.; Alberto Venchi & Cristina Grieco 2013. Rev. Vipera ursinii moldavica habitats and populations must be monitored in the future, in order to identify in time the changes that may lead to an imbalance, which would lead to extinction. ; Campbell, J.A. Amphibia-Reptilia 4 (2-4) 1983: 265-271 -, Bonaparte,L. Phylogenetische Probleme in dem Vipera ursinii-Formenkreis (Serpentes, Viperidae). A checklist. 1835. First record of Vipera ursinii graeca in Albania (Reptilia: Serpentes, Viperidae). [6], The specific name or epithet, ursinii, is in honor of Italian naturalist Antonio Orsini (1788–1870). Vipera ursinii extends from Western Europe to Russia and Kazakhstan and beyond through the Asian part of Russia. -, NICOLA, MATTEO RICCARDO DI 2019. 1999. Revue suisse de Zoologie 100 (1): 187-196 -, Benyr, Gerald 2016. 1985. Újvári B.; Korsós Z.; Péchy T. 2000. Wieso ist das Aussterben von V.u.rakosiensis in Österreich nicht ordentlich(ö publik gemacht worden, wird das vorkommen doch immer wieder zitiert; und wie kann eine Wiedereinführung von satten gehen, bzw. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 558 pp. ISTORICUL CERCETĂRILOR ASUPRA POPULAŢIILOR DIN MOLDOVA Viperele de stepă din Moldova au … Evidence for post-natal instability of head scalation in the meadow viper (Vipera ursinii) - patterns and taxonomic implications. Wiesenottern (Vipera ursinii ursinii) im Habitat. 2003). The karst viper (Vipera ursinii ssp.) Kosmos Naturführer, 266 pp. Zool.-Bot. Draco 15 (60): 40-56 -, Lambert, M.R.K. Legal Status and Assessment of Conservation Threats to Vipers (Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae) of the
Western and Central Balkans. Full table details Species: Vipera ursinii moldavica a fost inițial considerată ca fiind un hibrid între Vipera ursinii renardi și Vipera ursinii rakosiensis. The Hungarian meadow viper (Vipera ursinii rakosiensis) is one of the most threathened I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. Herp. 1911. Zool. Salamandra 24 (4): 215-247 -, Nilson,G. 5. Vipera ursinii rakosiensis is native to Hungary[13] although the taxonomic status of this subspecies is disputed (see section "Taxonomy"), The type locality is " ...monti dell'Abruzzo prossimi alla provincia d'Ascoli... " (...mountains of Abruzzo near the Province of Ascoli Piceno, Italy...). Cons. Pensoft Series Faunistica 46, 120 pp. J. Herpetol. The analysis of EUNIS habitats harbouring Vipera ursinii s.l. True Vipers: Natural History and Toxinology of Old World Vipers. /*