[124] The "other" category associated with non-conformity included everything from a man who drew a caricature of Hitler to a Catholic teacher suspected of being lukewarm about teaching National Socialism in his classroom. Si ricongiunge cosi` al figlio e alla sua sposa. Genrih Gimmler a quel tempo guidato dal Ministero degli Affari Interni della Baviera e aveva alcuna relazione con il futuro della Gestapo. When a group or organisation was thus declared criminal, the competent national authority of any signatory had the right to bring persons to trial for membership in that organisation, with the criminal nature of the group or organisation assumed proved. You have two hours left in which to confess everything. [102] Over time, membership in the Gestapo included ideological training, particularly once Werner Best assumed a leading role for training in April 1936. After another two or three years in that grade, the female detective could advance to Kriminalobersekretärin. [107], Contrary to popular belief, the Gestapo was not the all-pervasive, omnipotent agency in German society. [53], Violence and arrest was not confined to that of opposing political parties, membership in trade unions, or those with dissenting religious opinions, but also homosexuality. "[140] Nonetheless, German authorities ordered the mobilization of reserve Polish police forces, known as the Blue Police, which strengthened the Nazi police presence and carried out numerous "police" functions; in some cases, its functionaries even identified and rounded up Jews or performed other unsavory duties on behalf of their German masters. Reports indicate that the Gestapo was caught unaware of this plot as they did not have sufficient protections in place at the appropriate locations nor did they take any preventative steps. [35], The Polish government in exile in London during World War II received sensitive military information about Nazi Germany from agents and informants throughout Europe. The right collar patch was black without the sig runes. [15] Röhm's position was menacing as more than 4.5 million men fell under his command once the militias and veterans organisations were absorbed by the SA,[16] a fact which fuelled Röhm's aspirations; his dream of fusing the SA and Reichswehr together was undermining Hitler's relationships with the leadership of Germany's armed forces. [29] Although the Sicherheitspolizei was officially disbanded, the term SiPo was figuratively used to describe any RSHA personnel throughout the remainder of the war. [116] 80% of all Gestapo investigations were started in response to information provided by denunciations by ordinary Germans; while 10% were started in response to information provided by other branches of the German government and another 10% started in response to information that the Gestapo itself unearthed. Il primo capo è diventato R. Diss. Il capo della polizia politica „So far you have been treated as an officer and a gentleman, but don't think that this will go on if you don't behave better than you have done. Thereafter, there was a show trial overseen by Roland Freisler, followed by their execution. [127] Brutality on the part of interrogators—often prompted by denunciations and followed with roundups—enabled the Gestapo to uncover numerous resistance networks; it also made them seem like they knew everything and could do anything they wanted. Opposition became more difficult. del fronte militare della resistenza diede tutto se stesso all’organizzazione. Himmler also gained authority over all of Germany's uniformed law enforcement agencies, which were amalgamated into the new Ordnungspolizei (Orpo; Order Police), which became a national agency under SS general Kurt Daluege. Bauz, Ingrid; Sigrid Brüggemann; Roland Maier, eds. The local offices of the Gestapo, known as Gestapo Leitstellen and Stellen, answered to a local commander known as the Inspekteur der Sicherheitspolizei und des SD ("Inspector of the Security Police and Security Service") who, in turn, was under the dual command of Referat N of the Gestapo and also his local SS and Police Leader. Crimini di guerra : Il mito del bravo italiano tra repressione del rebellismo e guerra ai civili nei territori occupati by Borgomaneri, Luigi (a cura): and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles available now at AbeBooks.com. [22][23], The SiPo was placed under the direct command of Reinhard Heydrich who was already chief of the Nazi Party's intelligence service, the Sicherheitsdienst (SD). When Church leaders (clergy) voiced their misgiving about the euthanasia program and Nazi racial policies, Hitler intimated that he considered them "traitors to the people" and went so far as to call them "the destroyers of Germany". Terror against "state enemies" had become a way of life to such a degree that the Gestapo's presence and methods were eventually normalised in the minds of people living in Nazi Germany. [116], The popular picture of the Gestapo with its spies everywhere terrorising German society has been rejected by many historians as a myth invented after the war as a cover for German society's widespread complicity in allowing the Gestapo to work. A similar co-ordination existed in the local offices. mostra. The Gestapo supplied the information which implicated the SA and ultimately enabled Himmler and Heydrich to emancipate themselves entirely from the organisation. [110] The Gestapo office in Saarbrücken had 50 full-term informers in 1939. Employing biological metaphors, Best emphasised a doctrine which encouraged members of the Gestapo to view themselves as 'doctors' to the 'national body' in the struggle against "pathogens" and "diseases"; among the implied sicknesses were "communists, Freemasons, and the churches—and above and behind all these stood the Jews". LibraryThing is a cataloging and social networking site for booklovers Within Germany and areas which were incorporated within the Reich for the purpose of civil administration, local offices of the Gestapo, criminal police, and SD were formally separate. del Comando dei CC.RR. [126] Beyond that, sleep deprivation and various forms of harassment were used as investigative methods. Gellately argued that it was because of the widespread willingness of Germans to inform on each other to the Gestapo that Germany between 1933 and 1945 was a prime example of panopticism. [94] Personnel assigned to these auxiliary duties were often removed from the Gestapo chain of command and fell under the authority of branches of the SS. [81] A year after the organisations inception, Göring wrote in a British publication about having created the organisation on his own initiative and how he was "chiefly responsible" for the elimination of the Marxist and Communist threat to Germany and Prussia. [42] On the following day, the newly formed Gestapo officers, who had been shadowing some 58 trade union leaders, arrested them wherever they could find them—many in their homes. Traduzioni in contesto per "of the Gestapo" in inglese-italiano da Reverso Context: I was at the headquarters of the Gestapo. Members of the three convicted groups were subject to apprehension by Britain, the United States, the Soviet Union and France. This represented a radical departure from German tradition, which held that law enforcement was (mostly) a Land (state) and local matter. [95] It was the Gestapo chief, SS-Brigadierführer Heinrich Müller, who kept Hitler abreast of the killing operations in the Soviet Union and who issued orders to the four Einsatzgruppen that their continual work in the east was to be "presented to the Führer. I crimini di Theo Saewecke capo della Gestapo (Datanews, 1997); Lo straniero indesiderato e il ragazzo del Giambellino. Need to translate "THE ARMS OF THE GESTAPO" from english and use correctly in a sentence? [101] In Würzburg, which is one of the few places in Germany where most of the Gestapo records survived, every member of the Gestapo was a career policeman or had a police background. As the horrific events of the holocaust unfold, all will face unthinkable decisions and fates. Hitler a Milano. (2013). A.A.A. della Gestapo. [56], Between June 1942 and March 1943, student protests were calling for an end to the Nazi regime. For several leaders their punishment was death. [136] Once the German armies advanced into enemy territory, they were accompanied by Einsatzgruppen staffed by officers from the Gestapo and Kripo, who usually operated in the rear areas to administer and police the occupied land. These groups became a special focus of the Gestapo because of their insurrectionist goals—the overthrow of the Nazi regime, the re-establishment of an independent Austria under Habsburg leadership—and Hitler's hatred of the Habsburg family. Hellmuth Becker - Head of SS Division Totenkopf. [72] Despite fear of the Gestapo after mass arrests and executions in the spring, the opposition still plotted and planned. it Il 12 marzo 1938, Eberstein venne nominato Alto Capo della Polizia (HSSPF) per il distretto militare VII di Monaco di Baviera. [141] While in many countries the Nazis occupied in the East, the local domestic police forces supplemented German operations, noted Holocaust historian, Raul Hilberg, asserts that "those of Poland were least involved in anti-Jewish actions. It was viewed negatively by Hitler. After Germany conquered Poland in the autumn of 1939, Gestapo officials believed that they had neutralised Polish intelligence activities. [99][d] Some locals aided the Gestapo, whether as professional police auxiliaries or in other duties. "[96], According to regulations issued by the Reich Main Security Office in 1940, women that had been trained in social work or having a similar education could be hired as female detectives. [111], According to Canadian historian Robert Gellately's analysis of the local offices established, the Gestapo was—for the most part—made up of bureaucrats and clerical workers who depended upon denunciations by citizens for their information. In addition, thousands of political prisoners throughout Germany—and from 1941, throughout the occupied territories under the Night and Fog Decree—simply disappeared while in Gestapo custody. La Gestapo manteneva inoltre diversi ufficiali in ogni campo di concentramento, nello staff di ogni comandante in capo delle SS e della polizia e nel personale degli Einsatzgruppen. After uncovering a sample of the information the Poles had reported, Gestapo officials concluded that Polish intelligence activity represented a very serious danger to Germany. The Museum’s Collections document the fate of Holocaust victims, survivors, rescuers, liberators, and others through artifacts, documents, photos, films, books, personal stories, and more.Search below to view digital records and find material that you can access at our library and at the Shapell Center. [126] Failing that, torture and planting evidence were common methods of resolving a case, especially if the case concerned someone Jewish. Il primo comandante e capo della polizia della Gestapo è Hermann Goring, un veterano della prima guerra mondiale. [22] This action effectively merged the police into the SS and removed it from Frick's control. Gestapo. [109] "V-men", as undercover Gestapo agents were known, were used to infiltrate Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) and Communist opposition groups, but this was more the exception, not the rule. [118] For example, of the 84 cases in Würzburg of Rassenschande ("race defilement"—sexual relations with non-Aryans), 45 (54%) were started in response to denunciations by ordinary people, two (2%) by information provided by other branches of the government, 20 (24%) via information gained during interrogations of people relating to other matters, four (5%) from information from (Nazi) NSDAP organisations, two (2%) during "political evaluations" and 11 (13%) have no source listed while none were started by Gestapo's own "observations" of the people of Würzburg. This prompted Winston Churchill to ban any further contact with the German opposition. [60] However, resistance groups and those who were in moral or political opposition to the Nazis were stalled by the fear of reprisals from the Gestapo. [114] Gellately has also suggested that the Gestapo was "a reactive organisation" "... which was constructed within German society and whose functioning was structurally dependent on the continuing co-operation of German citizens". In an attempt to assassinate Hitler, Stauffenberg planted a bomb underneath a conference table inside the Wolf's Lair field headquarters. Iniziò la sua scalata tra i ranghi del potere nazista nel 1934, entrando nelle SS e diventando, soltanto due anni dopo, capo della Gestapo. I suoi membri erano reclutati tra gli ufficiali di carriera della polizia e il suo ruolo e la sua organizzazione vennero rapidamente stabiliti da Goring dopo che Adolf Hitler prese il potere nel marzo 1933. [83] On 26 April 1933, he reorganised the force's Amt III as the Gestapa (better-known by the "sobriquet" Gestapo),[84] a secret state police intended to serve the Nazi cause. [152], After the war, U.S. Counterintelligence Corps employed the former Lyon Gestapo chief Klaus Barbie for his anti-communist efforts and also helped him escape to Bolivia. Leading members of the most famous of these groups, the White Rose, were arrested by the police and turned over to the Gestapo. [133] Lastly, the Gestapo's effectiveness, while aided by denunciations and the watchful eye of ordinary Germans, was more the result of the co-ordination and co-operation amid the various police organs within Germany, the assistance of the SS, and the support provided by the various Nazi Party organisations; all of them together forming an organised persecution network. [124] Most of the political investigations took place between 1933 and 1935 with the all-time high of 57 cases in 1935. [89] However, Gestapo leader Heinrich Müller was never tried, as he disappeared at the end of the war. [98] The vast majority of Gestapo officers came from the police forces of the Weimar Republic; members of the SS, the SA, and the NSDAP also joined the Gestapo but were less numerous. [105] Browder also describes a sandwich effect, where from above; Gestapo agents were subjected to ideologically oriented racism and criminal biological theories; and from below, the Gestapo was transformed by SS personnel who did not have the proper police training, which showed in their propensity for unrestrained violence. Non si e` mai rassegnato alla perdita del figlio. @en.wiktionary.org. [147][e], Leaders, organisers, investigators and accomplices participating in the formulation or execution of a common plan or conspiracy to commit the crimes specified were declared responsible for all acts performed by any persons in execution of such plan. They were subject to co-ordination by inspectors of the security police and SD on the staffs of the local higher SS and police leaders, however, and one of the principal functions of the local SD units was to serve as the intelligence agency for the local Gestapo units. [43] Meanwhile, the SA and police occupied trade union headquarters, arrested functionaries, confiscated their property and assets; all by design so as to be replaced on 12 May by the German Labor Front (DAF), a Nazi organization placed under the leadership of Robert Ley. For example, in 1939 Stettin and Frankfurt am Main only had a total of 41 Gestapo men combined. [41] As a preface to this action, Hitler decreed May 1 as National Labor Day to celebrate German workers, a move the trade union leaders welcomed. Se questo fosse dimostrato significherebbe che esiste un sodalizio tra CIA e Stasi, sodalizio che evidentemente parte da Mueller padre, l’ultimo capo della GESTAPO, fuggito dalla Germania e mai rintracciato; passando per Klaus Barbie e vari gerarchi tedeschi rifiugiatisi sotto l”ombrello USA a patto di combattere i comunisti tanti anni fa [140] Many of the auxiliary police personnel operating on behalf of German Order Police, the SD, and Gestapo were members of the Schutzmannschaft, which included staffing by Ukrainians, Belorussians, Russians, Estonians, Lithuanians, and Latvians. [8] Göring took over the Gestapo in 1934 and urged Hitler to extend the agency's authority throughout Germany. The Gestapo had relatively few personnel and a mostly passive role in initiating investigations, as the surviving case files for the Dusseldorf and Wurzburg areas reveal. [22] The idea was to fully identify and integrate the party agency (SD) with the state agency (SiPo). Frasi simili. [61] During the first five months of 1943, the Gestapo arrested thousands suspected of resistance activities and carried out numerous executions. Department C (Administration and Party Affairs), central administrative office of the Gestapo, responsible for card files of all personnel including all officials. One of the more famous schemes, Operation Valkyrie, involved a number of senior German officers and was carried out by Colonel Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg. In late 1933, the Reich Interior Minister Wilhelm Frick wanted to integrate all the police forces of the German states under his control. [14] Himmler wanted to free himself entirely from Röhm, whom he viewed as an obstacle. [150] The IMT also convicted three of the groups: the Nazi leadership corps, the SS (including the SD) and the Gestapo. Klaus Barbie - Head of the Gestapo in Lyon. Frick did not have the political power to take on Göring by himself so he allied with Himmler. However, certain Polish information about the movement of German police and SS units to the East during the German invasion of the Soviet Union in the autumn of 1941 was similar to information British intelligence secretly obtained through intercepting and decoding German police and SS messages sent by radio telegraphy. With Frick's support, Himmler (pushed on by his right-hand man, Reinhard Heydrich) took over the political police of state after state. Both the Gestapo and Kripo became distinct departments within the RSHA. In lieu of naming convention changes, the original construct of the SiPo, Gestapo, and Kripo cannot be fully comprehended as "discrete entities", since they ultimately formed "a conglomerate in which each was wedded to each other and the SS through its Security Service, the SD". [149], The trials began in November 1945. There were reports that Müller ended up in the foreign secret service at Washington D.C., some allege he was in Moscow working for the Soviets, still others claimed he escaped to South America—but none of the myths have ever been proven; all of which adds to the "mysterious power of the Gestapo". Una fetta di torta e una tazza di tè con il capo della Gestapo. Intelligent Mr Toad is obsessed with removing the following information and edit warring to remove it In 1967 in Panama, Francis William Keith was accused of being Heinrich Mueller, the former head of the Gestapo, West German diplomats pressed Panama to extradite to Berlin for trial. [43], Many parts of Germany (where religious dissent existed upon the Nazi seizure of power) saw a rapid transformation; a change as noted by the Gestapo in conservative towns such as Würzburg, where people acquiesced to the regime either through accommodation, collaboration, or simple compliance. [77] Habsburg resistance fighter Karl Burian's (who was later executed) plan to blow up the Gestapo headquarters in Vienna represented a unique attempt to act aggressively against the Gestapo. This led to corresponding arrests, being sent to concentration camps and execution. Confidential office – hostile foreigners, Occupied territories – France, Belgium, Holland, Norway, Denmark (D4), Department E (Security and counterintelligence), Viktor Harnischfeger (Düsseldorf Gestapo Criminal Commissar). Uno degli elementi più efficaci del nuovo regime fu la Gestapo, la polizia segreta nazista.. L'edificio, che oggi è la sede del Ministero dell'Istruzione e degli Affari Religiosi della Polonia, durante la Seconda Guerra Mondiale fu il quartier generale della Gestapo a Varsavia. [120] The Gestapo always showed a special interest in denunciations concerning sexual matters, especially cases concerning Rassenschande with Jews or between Germans and foreigners, in particular Polish slave workers; the Gestapo applied even harsher methods to the foreign workers in the country, especially those from Poland,[121] Jews, Catholics and homosexuals. Click to read more about Operation Barbie, une Affaire d'Etats by Bertrand Delais. Pensa di vederlo nel pozzo e vi si tuffa. La Geheime Staatspolizei, comunemente abbreviata con Gestapo, era la forza di polizia segreta di stato della Germania Nazista. Pubblicato da Roberto Speranza Mercoledì 22 giugno 2016 [17] Several Nazi chieftains, among them Göring, Joseph Goebbels, Rudolf Hess, and Himmler, began a concerted campaign to convince Hitler to take action against Röhm. Himmler's subsequent appointment to Chef der Deutschen Polizei (Chief of German Police) and status as Reichsführer-SS made him independent of Interior Minister Wilhelm Frick's nominal control. Questa pagina è stata modificata per l'ultima volta il 31 dic 2020 alle 15:18. [113] Many of the local offices were understaffed and overworked, struggling with the paper load caused by so many denunciations. This groundbreaking miniseries explores a decade in the lives of the members of an extended Jewish family and a German lawyer who becomes a Nazi officer. [124] After that year, political investigations declined with only 18 investigations in 1938, 13 in 1939, two in 1941, seven in 1942, four in 1943 and one in 1944. [87], In September 1939, the SiPo and SD were merged into the newly created Reichssicherheitshauptamt (RSHA; Reich Main Security Office). Default style; Post style 2; Post style 3; Post style 4; Post style 5; Post video. [19] Once persuaded, Hitler acted by setting Himmler's SS into action, who then proceeded to murder over 100 of Hitler's identified antagonists. [51], In Dachau: The Official History 1933–1945, Paul Berben wrote that clergy were watched closely, and frequently denounced, arrested and sent to Nazi concentration camps: "One priest was imprisoned in Dachau for having stated that there were good folk in England too; another suffered the same fate for warning a girl who wanted to marry an S.S. man after abjuring the Catholic faith; yet another because he conducted a service for a deceased communist". Files, card, indexes, information and administration (C1), Department D (Occupied Territories), administration for regions outside the, Protectorate affairs, Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, regions of Yugoslavia, Greece (D1). [12] Many of the Gestapo employees in the newly established offices were young and highly educated in a wide variety of academic fields and moreover, represented a new generation of National Socialist adherents, who were hard-working, efficient, and prepared to carry the Nazi state forward through the persecution of their political opponents. [40], Shortly after the Nazis came to power, they decided to dissolve the 28 federations of the General German Trade Union Confederation, because Hitler—after noting their success in the works council elections—intended to consolidate all German workers under the Nazi government's administration, a decision he made on 7 April 1933. [54] In 1934, a special Gestapo office was set up in Berlin to deal with homosexuality. Registrati Connettiti Dimensione testo Aiuto العربية Deutsch English Español Français עברית Italiano 日本語 Nederlands Polski Português Română Русский Türkçe 中文 Issuu is a digital publishing platform that makes it simple to publish magazines, catalogs, newspapers, books, and more online. [89], The Gestapo became known as RSHA Amt IV ("Department or Office IV") with Heinrich Müller as its chief. [137], Occupation meant administration and policing, a duty assigned to the SS, the SD, and the Gestapo even before hostilities began, as was the case for Czechoslovakia. Blacky conduce il suo nugolo di diseredati nel sotterraneo e lo riallestisce. Traduzioni in contesto per "turn you over to the" in inglese-italiano da Reverso Context: I mean she wants to turn you over to the police. [130] "Selective terror" by the Gestapo, as mentioned by Johnson, is also supported by historian Richard Evans who states that, "Violence and intimidation rarely touched the lives of most ordinary Germans. This page was last edited on 27 December 2020, at 03:21. [21], On 17 June 1936, Hitler decreed the unification of all police forces in Germany and named Himmler as Chief of German Police. However, these internal departments remained and the Gestapo continued to be a department under the RSHA umbrella. Dal 1936 fu il capo supremo degli organi di polizia della Germania nazista e fu uno tra i maggiori responsabili dell'organizzazione dei campi di prigionia e di sterminio. [146] Nineteen of the 22 were convicted, and twelve—Martin Bormann (in absentia), Hans Frank, Wilhelm Frick, Hermann Göring, Alfred Jodl, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Wilhelm Keitel, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Alfred Rosenberg, Fritz Sauckel, Arthur Seyss-Inquart, Julius Streicher—were given the death penalty. Although an agent in uniform wore the collar insignia of the equivalent SS rank, he was still addressed as, e.g., https://english.radio.cz/petscheks-palace-once-headquarters-nazi-secret-police-8575365, USHMM, "Law and Justice in the Third Reich", US National Archives, "German Police Records Opened at the National Archives", Avalon Project, Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, The National Socialist Document Center of Cologne, "From Nazi to Criminal to Post-War Spy: German Intelligence Hired Klaus Barbie as Agent (20 January 2011)", "Press Release nr00-52: German Police Records Opened at the National Archives", Festung Furulund – magasinet – Dagbladet.no, Collection of testimonies concerning Gestapo activity in occupied Poland during WWII in "Chronicles of Terror" database, Reich Central Office for the Combating of Homosexuality and Abortion, National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands, National Socialist Workers' Party of Denmark, National Socialist Workers' Party (Sweden), German National Movement in Liechtenstein, German National Socialist Workers' Party (Czechoslovakia), Bulgarian National Socialist Workers Party, National Italo-Romanian Cultural and Economic Movement, Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen, Union of Young Fascists – Vanguard (boys), Union of Young Fascists – Vanguard (girls), National Socialist German Students' League, Persecution of Serbs in the Independent State of Croatia, National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP), National Socialist German Doctors' League, National Socialist League for Physical Exercise (NSRL), Nationalist Liberation Alliance (Argentina), South African Gentile National Socialist Movement, Office of the Reich Commissioner for Germanic Resettlement (RKFDV), List of major perpetrators of the Holocaust, Nazis and Nazi Collaborators (Punishment) Law, Orders, decorations, and medals of Nazi Germany, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gestapo&oldid=996526227, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with Norwegian-language sources (no), Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Reactionaries, liberals and opposition (A3).